Micro sample 416


This date taken from charcoal in Structure 1 is associated with Valdivia Phase 3 and is estimated to be contemporaneous with Structure 20 where phytoliths and starch were recovered from grinding stone tools (see Tables 2 and 3 in Pearsall et al. 2004; Pearsall 1978; Zarrillo et al. 2008).

Radiocarbon Date

Attached Files


References Cited

Pearsall, D. M.
    1978    Phytolith Analysis of Archeological Soils: Evidence for Maize Cultivation in Formative Ecuador. Science 199(4325):177-178.

Pearsall, D. M., K. Chandler-Ezell and J. A. Zeidler
    2004    Maize in Ancient Ecuador: Results from Residue Analysis of Stone Tools from the Real Alto Site. Journal of Anthropological Science 31:423-442.

Zarrillo, S., D. M. Pearsall, J. S. Raymond, M. A. Tisdale and D. J. Quon
    2008    Directly dated starch residues document early formative maize (Zea mays L.) in tropical Ecuador. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 105(13):5006–5011.


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